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Hypothyroidism, hypofunction, Hyperthyreosis


The thyroid is one of the largest endocrine glands in the body. This gland is found in the neck inferior to (below) the mouth and at approximately the same level as the cricoid cartilage. The thyroid controls how quickly the body burns energy, makes proteins, and how sensitive the body should be to other hormones.

The thyroid participates in these processes by producing thyroid hormones, principally thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). These hormones regulate the rate of metabolism and affect the growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body. Iodine is an essential component of both T3 and T4. The thyroid also produces the hormone calcitonin, which plays a role in calcium homeostasis.


The thyroid is situated on the anterior side of the neck, starting at the oblique line on the thyroid cartilage (just below the laryngeal prominence or Adam's apple), and extending to the 6th Tracheal ring (C-shaped cartilagenous ring of the trachea). It is inappropriate to demarcate the gland's upper and lower border with vertebral levels as it moves position in relation to these during swallowing. It lies over the trachea and is covered by layers of pretracheal fascia (allowing it to move), muscle and skin.

Embryological development

In the fetus, at 3-4 weeks of gestation, the thyroid gland appears as an epithelial proliferation in the floor of the pharynx at the base of the tongue between the tuberculum impar and the copula linguae at a point latter indicated by the foramen cecum. Subsequently the thyroid descends in front of the pharyngeal gut as a bilobed diverticulum through the thyroglossal duct. Over the next few weeks, it migrates to the base of the neck. During migration, the thyroid remains connected to the tongue by a narrow canal, the thyroglossal duct.


Hypothyroidism (thyroid hypofunction) is the disease state in humans and animals caused by insufficient production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland. It affects about 5% of the United Kingdom population over 60 years of age. As of 2006, more than 1% of the United Kingdom population were receiving T4 (Thyroxine) replacement therapy for hypothyroidism.

The ability of Hypothyroidism to mimic a number of medical conditions originates in the vast functions of the thyroid hormones, which are reduced or absent in this case. The functions of thyroid hormones include modulation of carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism, vitamin utilization, mitochondrial function, digestive process, muscle and nerve activity, blood flow, oxygen utilization, hormone secretion and sexual and reproductive health to mention a few. Thus, when the thyroid hormone content gets out of balance, systems covering the whole body are affected. This is why hypothyroidism can look like other diseases. Conversely, sometimes other conditions can be mistaken for hypothyroidism.


yperthyrosis is characterized by definite clinic signs and has some variations. Nevertheless, the output reduction of the thyroid hormonal redundant quantity is the main medical tactic of the academic medicine at the Hyperthyreosis. It is achieved either at the expense of operational ablation of the glands lobe, or by means of medical neutralization (irrevocable!) of the thyroid cellular activity. Later, there is a transition into the condition of insufficient hormonal discharge, during which a regular use of hormonal medications with the aim of shortage fulfillment is offered.

Thyroid treatment

Treatment at the thyroid nodular and diffuse goiter should be directed on functional loads reduction on this organ. This will allow the gland, functioning in the usual mode, not to use its additional opportunities at the expense of functioning elements increase and to exclude critical situations, revealing locally.

To reach this aim, we offer two ways: